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An autosomal recessive disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain characterized by early-onset, rapidly progressive encephalopathy, neurodegeneration, and loss of motor and cognitive skills. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, poor eye contact, oculomotor abnormalities, as well as deafness, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia. Lactate levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid are increased. Patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV. Death in childhood may occur, often due to central respiratory failure.




Primary mitochondrial disease


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